Paul Lachine

Un toque de clarín para los mercados en ascenso

ITHACA – Avanzado ya 2012, vale la pena reflexionar sobre cómo un decenio de fuerte crecimiento económico en los mercados en ascenso propició las clamorosas transformaciones políticas del año pasado. Desde los espectaculares acontecimientos habidos en Oriente Medio hasta la oleada de apoyo a la cruzada anticorrupción de Anna Hazare en la India, los dirigentes de los mercados en ascenso están recibiendo desde las calles un mensaje claro, en el sentido de que el crecimiento no lo es todo. Pasarlo por alto redundará en su perjuicio.

Las economías con mercados en ascenso obtuvieron un sólido crecimiento durante el decenio de 2000 e incluso sobrevivieron a la crisis financiera mundial sin un desplome del crecimiento, pero el espectro de la corrupción en aumento está comprometiendo la legitimidad de sus beneficios económicos y erosionando el apoyo para otras reformas necesarias a fin de sostener su impulso de crecimiento.

La corrupción adopta muchas formas, pero en los mercados en ascenso una combinación de factores la ha convertido en un cáncer que en última instancia derriba regímenes. La incesante corrupción en pequeña escala es un importante perjuicio para los pobres en muchos de esos países; de hecho, limita su acceso a los servicios sociales y a las funciones básícas del Gobierno, de los que dependen para su propia supervivencia.

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