Une bombe dans chaque réacteur

BERLIN – Vingt-cinq après le désastre nucléaire de Tchernobyl, la catastrophe en cours à la centrale de Fukushima au Japon a – il faut l’espérer – rendu évident une fois pour toute que les bienfaits supposés de l’âge nucléaire n’étaient que des illusions : l’énergie nucléaire n’est ni propre, ni sûre, ni bon marché.

En fait, c’est tout le contraire. L’énergie nucléaire pose trois risques majeurs, non résolus : la sécurité des installations, la gestion des déchets et, le plus dangereux de tous, le risque de prolifération militaire. De plus, les alternatives à l’énergie nucléaire – et aux combustibles fossiles – sont aujourd’hui mieux maîtrisées et plus durables. Le risque nucléaire n’est pas une nécessité, mais un choix politique délibéré.

Les combustibles fossiles et l’énergie nucléaire appartiennent aux utopies technologiques du XIXe et XXe siècles, basées sur la croyance en l’innocuité des moyens technologiques et sur le fait, qu’à l’époque, seule une petite fraction de la population mondiale, principalement dans les pays occidentaux, profitait du progrès technologique.

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