¿Un Consenso de Berlín?

HONG KONG - Un viaje que hice hace poco a Berlín me trajo recuerdos de una visita anterior en el verano de 1967, cuando era un pobre estudiante que se maravillaba ante el muro que dividiría y devastaría toda una sociedad por otras dos décadas. Berlín hoy es una ciudad vibrante y rejuvenecida, que ha sido reconstruida gracias al trabajo duro y la voluntad de los pueblos alemanes por unificar el país. Por lo mismo, era un lugar adecuado para celebrar la conferencia del Instituto para el Nuevo Pensamiento Económico (INET), a la que había viajado como participante.

El tema de la conferencia era "El paradigma perdido" y reunió a más de 300 economistas, politólogos, analistas de sistemas y ecologistas para repensar la teoría económica y política ante los retos y las incertidumbres que plantea la creciente desigualdad, el aumento del desempleo, el desorden financiero global y el cambio climático. Casi todos coincidieron en que el viejo paradigma de la economía neoclásica ya no sirve, pero no hubo acuerdo sobre lo que pueda reemplazarlo.

El premio Nobel Amartya Sen atribuyó la crisis europea de cuatro fracasos: político, económico, social e intelectual. La crisis financiera mundial, que comenzó en 2007 como una crisis de los préstamos hipotecarios de alto riesgo en EE.UU. y creció hasta convertirse en una crisis de la deuda soberana (y la banca) europea, ha planteado interrogantes que no podemos responder, debido a la sobreespecialización y la fragmentación del conocimiento. Y, sin embargo, no se puede negar que el mundo se ha vuelto demasiado complejo como para que una teoría simple y general pueda explicar los intrincados cambios económicos, tecnológicos, demográficos y ambientales.

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