¿1929 o 1989?

PARÍS – A medida que la crisis económica se profundiza y amplía, el mundo busca analogías históricas como ayuda para comprender lo que ha ocurrido. Al comienzo de la crisis, muchos la compararon con 1982 o 1973, lo que resultaba reconfortante, ya que ambas fechas marcan recesiones cíclicas clásicas.

Hoy los ánimos son muchos más sombríos, y están comenzando a abundar las referencias a 1929 y 1931, a pesar de que algunos gobiernos siguen comportándose como si la crisis fuera más clásica que excepcional. La tendencia es ser excesivamente parcos (Europa) o a difundir ampliamente las medidas que se adoptan (Estados Unidos). Europa está siendo cautelosa para evitar el endeudamiento y defender el euro, mientras EE. UU. ha tomado medidas en varios frentes para no desperdiciar una oportunidad ideal de implementar reformas estructurales que se necesitan con urgencia.

Para los geoestrategas, sin embargo, el año que viene a la mente de manera natural, tanto en lo político como en lo económico, es 1989. Por supuesto, la caída de Lehman Brothers no tiene nada que ver con la del Muro de Berlín. De hecho, en la superficie parece ser su perfecta antítesis: el colapso de un muro que simbolizaba la opresión y las divisiones artificiales, frente al colapso de una institución reconfortante y aparentemente indestructible del capitalismo financiero.

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