After the currency crises of 1994-2001, and especially the East Asia crises of 1997-98, a lot of research investigated what countries could do to protect themselves against a future repeat. More importantly, policy makers in emerging markets took some serious measures. Some countries abandoned exchange rate targets and began to float. Many accumulated high levels of foreign exchange reserves. Many moved away from dollar-denominated debt, toward other kinds of capital inflow that would be less vulnerable to currency mismatch, such as domestic currency debt or Foreign Direct Investment. Some instituted Collective Action Clauses in their debt contracts to facilitate otherwise-messy restructuring of debt in the event of a severe negative shock. A few raised reserve requirements or otherwise tightened prudential banking regulations (clearly not enough, in retrospect). And so on.
When the Global Financial Crisis hit ten years later, it was bad news for everyone, except that it was good news for econometricians: we could observe which countries got hit badly by this common external shock in 2008-09 and which did not, and could try to draw inferences about which strategies helped countries withstand the shock better than others. The NBER is holding a public symposium in Washington on September 22. The topic of the 3rd and final session is: What ex ante policies can help reduce vulnerability to future shocks?
Three papers that were presented at the earlier NBER conference in Bretton Woods (the culmination of a project on the Global Financial Crisis sponsored by the Sloan Foundation) fall naturally into this category:
- International Reserves and the Global Financial Crisis, Kathryn Dominguez (University of Michigan), Yuko Hashimoto (IMF), and Takatoshi Ito (University of Tokyo);&
- Managing Capital Inflows: The Role of Controls and Prudential Policies, Jonathan Ostry, Atish Ghosh, Marcos Chamon, and Mahvash Qureshi (all of the IMF);&
- International Financial Crises and the IMF: What the Historical Record Shows, Bergljot Barkbu (IMF), Barry Eichengreen (UC, Berkeley), and Ashoka Mody (IMF).
To simplify a bit, Dominguez and co-authors study whether holding high levels of reserves helped countries do better in the Global Financial Crisis; Ostry and co-authors study whether capital controls and bank regulation helped; and Barkbu, Eichengreen and Mody consider possible new mechanisms to improve the risk structure of capital inflows and to smooth adjustment to shocks, such as sovereign CoCos (Contingent Convertible bonds) and indexing of debt.