Saturday, October 25, 2014
3

夺取可持续发展的胜利

赫尔辛基/约翰内斯堡—世界正走在一条不可持续的道路上,必须尽快制定新方向,在经济主流中嵌入公平和环境的考量。为了达到这一目标,我们必须从现在开始实践可持续发展——不是说要顶着经济危机的压力如此,而是说正因为经济危机才要如此。

如今,我们面临着众多挑战。经济在动摇,生态系统岌岌可危,不平等性——不管是各国国内还是各国之间——显著增加。总而言之,这些症状有一个共同的根源,即狭隘的投机性利益压倒了共同利益、共同责任和常识。

作为联合国秘书长全球可持续性发展高级别小组联值主席,潘基文秘书长要求我们和全世界20为主要领导人一起,探索解决这些问题的办法。我们的任务很明确:找出如何为更多的人提供更好的机会,同时减少对地球的冲击。

25年前,以挪威首相布伦特兰夫人命名的布伦特兰报告呼吁采纳可持续发展的新范式。报告指出,持久的经济发展、社会平等和环境可持续性是相辅相成的。人类福利取决于这些因素的综合效应。

我们相信,这一概念不仅依然正确,而且要比从前更加与我们息息相关。如今,我们必须将可持续发展纳入主流经济学,厘清现在和将来作为与不作为的成本,从而将理论付诸实践。

到2030年,随着人口膨胀和胃口增加,全世界至少需要比现在多50%的食品、多45%的能源和多30%的水。地球正在接近、甚至已经越过了科学意义上的临界点。这对于我们如何治理全球居民以及消除贫困有着极其严重的影响:发展中国家想要实现其合理的增长愿景,就必须耗费更多的时间以及更多的财政和技术支持向可持续发展转型。

但我们仍然保持乐观。如今,代议制民主已经是主流政府行使。科学进步让我们能够更好地理解气候和生态系统风险。数十亿人民通过技术联系了起来,地球在“缩小”,天涯若比邻的观念有了很大的扩张。我们相信,我们能够集思广益,唤醒我们选择未来的意愿,而不是让未来选择我们。

最大的风险在于沿着当前的道路走到黑。2030年,今天出生的孩子们将成年。我们不能以他们的未来作抵押享受不可持续且不平等的生活方式。

那么,面对重组全球经济、保护地球环境以及给所有人提供更大的机会和平等(包括性别平等)的重大挑战,我们应该从何处着手?特别小组的报告《坚韧的人民,坚韧的地球》给出了建议。

首先,我们需要衡量代价。市场应该反映经济决策的全部生态和人类成本,并形成充分显示作为和不作为后果的价格信号。污染——包括碳排放——绝不应该是免费的。化石燃料的价格和扭曲交易的补贴应该透明化,并在2020年完全取消。我们还需要创造超越GDP的新的发展衡量标准,并在2014年出台新的可持续性发展指数。

其次,我们必须将科学防灾可持续性的中心。我们生活在一个人类活动对地球有着前所未有的影响的时代,也生活在一个技术进步前所未有的时代。科学必须促进考虑更周到、更综合的决策,将气候变化、生物多样性、海洋和海岸管理、饮水和食品稀缺和行星“边界”(定义人类“安全操作空间”的科学阈值)等问题都纳入其中,形成一个。为了从大处着眼,我们提出用定期的全球可持续性展望(Global Sustainability Outlook)来综合各个部门和机构的知识。

第三,我们需要为长远着眼提供激励。艰难时世很容易让我们成为眼前利益的奴隶。我们需要将长期考虑置于比短期要求更优先的位置,不管是在市场中还是在投票箱前。

有限的公帑应该战略性地用于为更多的私人投资流松绑,用于风险分担,用于扩大繁荣基石(包括现代能源服务)。联合国的千禧年发展目标和其他相关事项一起,目标在2015年将全球贫困削减一半,这使我们受益良多。各国政府应该着手制定2015年之后的普遍适用的可持续发展目标,让长期行动冲破选举周期的藩篱。

第四,我们需要拿出坚韧不拔的精神应对未来的艰难挑战,因为极端天气、资源稀缺和价格波动已经成为“新常态”。我们需要为最弱势的群体推进灾难风险消除、适应和可靠的安全网。这是为我们的共同未来投资。

第五,将平等与机会置于同等重要的位置是很关键的。不平等性以及将女性、青年和穷人排除在外有损于全球增长,可能导致社会及其制度之间契合度的下降。女性掌权有可能带来无穷的好处,不仅仅限于全球经济。

确保发展中国家有时间、有财政和技术支持来实现向可持续发展的转型归根结底有利于我们所有人。促进公平和普惠是正确的做法,也是持续繁荣和稳定的明智做法。

Hide Comments Hide Comments Read Comments (3)

Please login or register to post a comment

  1. CommentedGabriel Nagy

    On the way towards achieving some sort of “sustainable” development -a concept that is commonplace nowadays, many forget how we got here and that not all countries, regions and cities are at the same level in the development process.
    There is more at stake in evolution than just preserving the world’s economic growth and the ‘developed’ world privileges (accumulated through hundreds of years of exploitation and colonization). If we are to preserve life, which is what at the end matters, it is necessary to continue evolving, learning from the experience and adapting accordingly. Challenges remain the same: survival, equity, opportunity -within our means, respects for others and reverence for the environment. There is no master plan, Holy Grail, or Nirvana. Time, experience and geography shape the world’s regions, nations and cities making them different and unique. Only a detailed study of history, fact finding research and a sound analysis could provide some light for adaptation but no expert panel has all the answers.

  2. CommentedProcyon Mukherjee

    I cannot agree more on the pricing of opportunities that must have a fair deal for the community at large and not be priced based on market forces only that distort reality as a core strategy; it may seem utopian but utopia got the better off stark reality that brought the semblance of balance in an otherwise partisan terrain that brought the moral divide between distortion of reality and that which is common good. For common good to triumph we must end the nexus between seekers of market distortion and those who provide all forms of credit to them.

    Procyon Mukherjee

  3. CommentedZsolt Hermann

    I agree with all the suggestions.

    There is only one thing missing: motivation.

    Our inherent nature revolves around ourselves, we always think about our own well being, our own health, our own profit first, and then if we still have some surplus we might share it with others.

    There is nothing we can blame here this is how we are born.

    So if this is the case why would those who still has much, and now fear they might not have that much later on start sharing with others?

    This would go against human nature!

    Until we truly understand what it means living in a global world, that we are in such an integral interdependent system that I cannot succeed, cannot prosper, cannot survive unless the whole network is healthy, and that for any calculation and action I have to take the whole system into consideration before my own needs simply because otherwise I do not get my fulfillment, we will not change.

    Then we will just continue with the superficial adjustment within the same box, within the same paradigm no achieving anything but exhausting our last resources.

    We need to start such a global, integral education program that could make it absolutely clear to each and every human being that unless we work together, in complete mutuality and equality none of us will be able to create a sustainable future for ourselves, and we risk extinction not in some faraway future but within our lifetime.

    If Humanity starts working as a single, united organism, like cells and organs of a healthy body we have unlimited potential and we can truly control reality, if we behave like cancer cells like today, we will destroy everything.

Featured