Sunday, November 23, 2014
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韩国统一和全球和平

首尔——在2015年联合国庆祝成立70周年时,韩国人却在感叹70年的民族分裂。考虑到分裂的半岛正在面对——并且今后仍将持续面对的所有机遇和挑战,统一仍将是我们必须继续为之奋斗的重要目标。

1948年在联合国主持下正式成立后,当时羽翼未丰的大韩民国立即被卷入到冷战的强权政治中,并在1991年前阻碍其加入联合国。但自那以后,韩国充分夺回了失去的时间。它在联合国安全理事会、经济社会理事会和人权理事会都发挥了积极作用——并踊跃投身与维和、发展合作、气候变化、核不扩散及人权相关的众多举措。

在此期间,国际社会也发生了巨大变化。全球化和技术革命令相互依存度不断加深,但安全、平等、公正和容忍精神的缺失在全球各地依然随处可见。卢旺达大屠杀二十年后,我们继续见证着人类的残忍与恐怖——比方说在叙利亚、南苏丹和中非共和国。同时,十亿左右全世界最贫困的民众,包括妇女和儿童,都挣扎在死亡线上。

东北亚同样麻烦不断。崛起的中国、复兴的日本、张扬的俄罗斯以及抱残守缺的朝鲜导致地区新的复杂及不确定性增加。后者试图研发核武器尤其令人担忧。就美国而言,它正积极地将“再平衡”转向亚洲。

历史、领土及海上安全冲突日趋频繁,加之丑陋民族主义死灰复燃极有可能激发军事对抗,而军事对抗很可能与政治误判相关。如果决策者和维和力量置之不理,那么东北亚紧张局势很可能破坏该地区的经济繁荣。

正是在这样充满挑战的环境中,韩国总统朴槿惠于2013年当选。其外交政策——也就是所谓的“互信政治” ——旨在将猜疑和矛盾的氛围转变为信任与合作,并建设“新的朝鲜半岛、新的东北亚和新的世界。”

朝核问题是实现这一转型的最大障碍。就在几个月前,朝鲜还威胁要进行新一轮核试验。因此,当前最紧迫的任务是一定要阻止这种状况发生,之后再对朝鲜核武器及其运载能力的发展进行调查。

朝鲜半岛的和平表象依然脆弱,韩国政府已经进行了密集的外交努力,团结地区及全世界的朋友和伙伴对朝鲜进行威慑。朝鲜进行过三轮核试验后,联合国安理会已经通过一系列决议对其实行大规模制裁。如果胆敢有任何进一步的挑衅行为,那么机构制裁的一切后果必须由朝鲜自身承担。

在这样的情况下——尽管朝鲜人权及人道主义状况非常严峻——朴依然提出了朝韩统一的目标。在德累斯顿最近一次讲话中,她提出了三项具体可行的建议,以解决朝鲜人道主义问题、建设有利于南北朝鲜共同福祉及繁荣的基础设施并促进朝韩民众一体化。

上述战略人道主义部分的实现可以与政治和安全因素无关。比方说,我们要落实联合国孕产妇保健及婴儿营养1000天计划,以结束长期困扰朝鲜的婴幼儿营养不良。我们只能希望朝鲜对此作出积极的回应。这将是一项长期计划的首要步骤。

朝韩两国的统一之路无疑将荆棘密布,需要国际社会的鼎立合作。反过来,我们立志打造的全新统一国家将符合其邻国及国际社会的利益,从而促进全球的和平与繁荣。

不久前曾经有过类似的先例,因此我们有理由满怀希望。23年前,导致两德持续分裂的地缘政治背景发生了根本性的变化。同样,总有一天朝韩两个联合国铭牌将换成唯一的一个。

翻译:Xu Binbin

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    1. Commentedj. von Hettlingen

      Foreign Minister Yun wants to remind the international community of "70 years of national division" in 2015 and to highlight the goals of President Park Geun-hye, "Korean unification and global peace".
      Koreans have long dreamed of reuniting their two countries. To this end the Ministry of Unification was formed in 1968, which ushered in an era of dialogue, reconciliation and cooperation with the Communist North, hoping this would pave the way towards a united Korea, that provides for sustainable peace on the peninsula.
      South Korea has come a long way since partition in 1948. Today it is the world's 15th largest economy and one of Asia's most affluent countries. Having seen four decades of authoritarian rule, multi-party political system was restored in 1987.
      After years of hostility, Park's "Trustpolitik" should help build confidence between the two Koreas. Mutual mistrust is deep, with their border considered to be one of the world's last remaining military flashpoints. Pyongyang fears that Seoul intends to undermine or absorb the North. Direct talks had been held, but they ended in 1994, when the North's leader, Kim il-Sung died. Pyongyang was offended when Seoul did not send a message of condolence.
      In 1998 Kim Dae-jung was elected president. He was more conciliatory towards the North than his predecessors and said peace was more important than unification. South Korea was in an economic crisis, which prompted him to admit that the country couldn't afford a unification with the North. Nevertheless Koreans had swallowed their pride and asked the IMF for help. Their economy recovered and Kim's "sunshine policy" which aimed to bring the North out of isolation, had improved their relationship with Pyongyang.
      For his work for democracy, humans rights, peace and reconciliation with North Korea Kim was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in October 2000. Four months earlier, North Korea's reclusive Kim Jong-il surprised everyone by appearing at the airport to greet Kim Dae-jung personally in a lavish welcome ceremony. Kim said he was fulfilling a lifelong dream to become the first South Korean leader to set foot in the communist North since division.
      While South Korea was preparing for Kim Jong-il to visit Seoul, new strains emerged that frayed the relations between the two countries. After the 9/11 attacks, Seoul issued an emergency alert against terrorism. George W Bush took a harder stance towards North Korea, saying it formed part of an "axis of evil". This had dismayed many South Koreans who backed their government's fragile engagement with the communist North. As a result to its nuclear weapons and missile tests, sanctions were imposed against the North in 2006.
      The "sunshine policy" ended with the election in 2008 of Lee Myung-bak, who adopted a tougher stance towards the North in response to its failure to give up the nuclear programme. A series of aggression put the South on high alert. In 2010 Obama strongly condemned North Korea's shelling of Yeonpyeong island and said the US would defend South Korea.
      Since Kim Jong-il's death his son Kim Jong-un succeeded. Young and untested, he has no empathy for his people, who suffer from chronic malnutrition. North Korea has been enduring severe food shortages since 1995, affecting large sections of its population. Floods and drought were made worse by agricultural mismanagement. Indeed, Seoul is aware of the challenges and knows that "Korea’s road to unification will undoubtedly be difficult". If it happens within her tenure, President Park will go down in history as the unifier of the two Koreas.

    2. CommentedMoctar Aboubacar

      뭔가 했더니 역시 개소리구나 개소리.
      아직도 독일 얘기를 하고 있는데 보다 근본적인 문제인 통일의 당위성을 하나도 논한 바가 없다. 제발 이 사이트에 실속 있는 글을 좀 올립시다.

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