Thursday, April 24, 2014
Exit from comment view mode. Click to hide this space
5

新世界需要新世行

纽约—世界正站在十字路口。国际社会要么团结起来,共同应对贫困、资源耗尽和气候变化,要么下一代将面临资源战争、政治动荡和环境崩溃。

世界银行如果能够担当起合适的领导角色,将能在消除这些威胁及其隐含风险方面起到关键作用。因此,世界银行的187各成员国今春如何选择将于7月卸任的罗伯特·佐利克的新行长,将事关全球重大利益。

世界银行成立于1944年,初衷是促进经济发展,如今,基本上所有国家都已成为它的成员。其核心任务是消除世界贫困以及确保环境友好、社会普惠的全球发展。实现这些目标不仅能够改善数十亿人民的生活,还能将因贫困、饥荒和争夺稀缺资源而引发的暴力冲突扼杀于未萌。

美国官员习惯于将世界银行视为美国外交政策和商业利益的延伸。世行坐落于华盛顿宾夕法尼亚大道,与白宫只隔着两个街区,因此美国人一直主导着这个机构也就不足为奇了。如今,不少成员国——包括巴西、中国、印度和数个非洲国家——正在发声支持合议领导以及改善世行战略使之适用于所有成员国。

自世行成立至今,一直有一条不成文的规矩:行长人选由美国政府决定。成立至今的11位行长均是美国人,而且没有一位是世行核心责任——经济发展方面的专家,也没有一位拥有扶贫或促进环境可持续性的职业经验。相反,美国总是选择华尔街银行家和政客来担任这一职务,大概是为了保证世行政策能够符合美国商业和政治利益吧。

但这一政策却令美国弄巧成拙,也严重地伤害了全世界。由于世行最高层长期缺乏战略上的专业知识和技能,因此该行一直没有明确的方向。许多项目与其说是为了可持续发展,不如说是为了迎合美国公司的利益。世行弄砸了大量的发展项目,解决的全球问题却少之又少。

长久以来,在世行的领导下,许多完全不适合最贫困过家及其中的最贫困人口的美国式概念被强加于他们头上。比如,世行完全没能处理好20世纪90年代艾滋病、结核病和疟疾的大爆发,没能给予疾病暴发、数百万生命危在旦夕的国家足够的帮助。

更糟糕的是,世行主张采取使用者付费和“覆盖成本”的医疗服务,这导致穷国的最贫困人口——最需要服务的人群——根本无法获得赖以救命的医疗服务。2000年,在德班艾滋病峰会上,我建议成立新的“全球基金”来对抗这些疾病,而我之所以如此建议,正是因为世行的不作为。全球艾滋病、结核病和疟疾对抗基金(Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB, and Malaria)成立了,并挽救了数百万的生命,光是在非洲,疟疾致死率就至少降低30%。

类似地,世行错失了在非洲、亚洲和拉美贫困农村地区支持自耕小农、普及促进农村综合发展的关键机会。从1985年到2005年的近20年时间里,世行一直拒绝使用已被证明效果良好的定向小地主支持项目以帮助贫困自耕农提高产量、走出贫困。而在最近,世行已增加了其对小农的支持,但距离它所能做到也应该做到的还差得很远。

世行的工作人员是高度职业化的,只要摆脱狭隘的美国利益和视角的束缚,他们能够取得更大的成就。世行具有成为催化决定世界未来的关键领域进步的潜力。其优先项目应该包括农业生产率、为可持续发展动员信息技术、开发低碳能源体系以及促进有教无类式的平等教育(更多地依靠新型通讯手段让数以百万计的原本得不到优质教育的学生获得优质教育来实现)。

世行的行动目前涉及到所有这些领域,但没有在其中任何一个起到实质上的领导作用。尽管其工作人员想到那个优秀,但世行缺乏战略眼光,也不够灵活,无法担起变革代理人的责任。让世行做该做的事需要艰苦的努力,要求其最高层具有专家知识和技能。

最重要的是,世行的新行长应该具有应对发展挑战方面的第一首职业经验。世界不应该甘于现状。地球需要创造性的解决方案来应对复杂的发展挑战,又一位来自华尔街或美国政坛的世行行长将是对地球的重大打击。世行需要一位成就卓著的专业人士,他从上任的第一天起就必须做好应对可持续发展的重大挑战的准备。

Exit from comment view mode. Click to hide this space
Hide Comments Hide Comments Read Comments (5)

Please login or register to post a comment

  1. CommentedKir Komrik

    Thank you for the balanced article.

    Only with a codified, global constitution can the issues raised in this article be effectively addressed. We are living a fantasy if we think otherwise. Global rule of law will be necessary to ensure that the policies of a central treasury are uniform and if applied for one nation then applied for all (symmetric).

    It is the very elision of uniform rule of law that allows the conditions described to exist; namely, for the United States to have undue and unproductive influence on the World Bank.

    kirkomrik.wordpress.com

    - kk

  2. CommentedJuan Camilo Moreno

    WASHINGTON, March 23, 2012 - The Board of Executive Directors of the World Bank confirmed today that, as announced on February 17, the period for submitting nominations for the position of the next President of the World Bank closed on Friday, March 23. The Board is pleased to announce that the following three nominees will be considered for the position:

    Jim Yong Kim, a US national and President of Dartmouth College, New Hampshire

    José Antonio Ocampo, a Colombian national and Professor at Columbia University, New York

    Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, a Nigerian national and Coordinating Minister of the Economy and Minister of Finance, Nigeria

    In accordance with the procedures previously announced, the Executive Directors will conduct formal interviews of the three candidates in Washington, D.C., during the following weeks, with the expectation of selecting the new President by consensus by the 2012 Spring Meetings

  3. CommentedZahed Yousuf

    I do agree that the President of the World Bank needs to be both politcally neutral as well as neutral in terms of economic ideolgy - if the WB wishes to achieve its developmnet goals. Professor Sachs sounds like you have already submitted your CV for the position

  4. CommentedAndrés Arellano Báez

    I think you are right, It looks like he submitted his CV. But I think that Sachs will be an amazing World Bank President. He or Stiglitz should be the next in charge. I am thinking now in a viral campaing call "Sachs or Stiglitz 2012", a real and profound campaing in Internet, not like the propaganda calls "Kony 2012".

  5. CommentedProcyon Mukherjee

    Jeffrey Sachs is raising the fundamental point that interests of the sustainable world economy is obstructed by the narrow interests of capital that chooses havens of ‘return’ that is at variance with the overall interests of communities that need basic education, health and housing.

    This co-variance and divergence of interest cannot simply be left to the right choice of the leader alone, although it does drive a point; the lack of over-riding consensus needed to make the sweeping reforms in the functioning of the Bank belies the tragic theme of our times that in augmenting the marginal propensity to consume of a whopping majority one must allocate capital through a program that could actually dis-incentivize the current methods that benefit a miniscule minority.

    Procyon Mukherjee

Featured